Design educational tool

Mobile apps for reflection in learning: A design research in K-12 education

We just published a research article in the British Journal of Educational Technology. You will find the article from the journals’ website. The correct citations is:

Leinonen, T., Keune, A., Veermans, M. and Toikkanen, T. (2014), Mobile apps for reflection in learning: A design research in K-12 education. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi: 10.1111/bjet.12224

The journal is not Open Access. Although I have a right to send individual copies of the PDF to colleagues upon their request and to share it as part of my teaching duties.

So, if you are my colleague or student and interested in to have a look the article, please send me an email and I will send you the PDF.

Here is the abstract.

Mobile apps for reflection in learning: A design research in K-12 education

This study takes a design-based research approach to explore how applications designed for mobile devices could support reflection in learning in K-12 education. Use of mobile devices is increasing in schools. Most of the educational apps support single-person use of interactive learning materials, simulations and learning games. Apps designed to correspond to collaborative learning paradigms, such as collaborative progressive inquiry or project-based learning, are scarce. In these pedagogical approaches, reflection plays an important role. This paper presents a design-based research study of mobile device apps, ReFlex and TeamUp, that are specifically designed for use in student-centred and collaborative school learning, in which continuous reflection is an important part of the learning process. The design of the apps has relied on earlier research on digital tools for reflection and research about mobile devices in classroom learning. The design of the apps was accomplished as part of the qualitative design-based research conducted with a total of 165 teachers in 13 European countries. As a characteristic for a design-based research, the results of the study are twofold: practical and theoretical. The apps designed, ReFlex and TeamUp, are practical results of the qualitative research carried out in schools with teachers and students to understand the design challenges and opportunities in schools, to renew their pedagogical practices and to take new tools in use. To understand better the capacity of the apps to facilitate reflection, we analysed the apps in light of earlier studies concerning the levels of reflection that digital tools may support and categorisations of affordances that mobile device apps may provide for classroom learning. Our research indicates that there is potential for fostering the practice of reflection in classroom learning through the use of apps for audio-visual recordings.

4 replies on “Mobile apps for reflection in learning: A design research in K-12 education”

Hi Mr. Leinonen , I am a master student , i interested in mobile learning , but it is difficult to find researches about mobile apps .. I hope that I am honored to obtain a copy of the search .. with many thanks and gratitude ..


Hi Mr. Leinonen,


I am doing research in using smartphones for imparting second language skills for the underprivileged students. I would be greatly honored, if you are pleased to send me a pdf of your article.

Thanks and Regards,


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